Yes, you can make them "visible" with a utility like Onyx (or dozens of other utilities available). The font is named oddly, a bunch of numbers. But it's there, and you can copy it to a disc/drive or FTP/email it just like any other font.
When you do a collect for output on the ID file that uses a Typekit font, you just browse in the collected fonts folder and it/they will be in there.
The situation sucks, but on the other hand, fonts are supposed to be licensed by each users except for those outputting the file for print. If they made it easy, you'd have everyone downloading the entire collection and sharing it everywhere.
It won't be a problem for long, as I suspect nearly all professional Adobe users will have switched to CC within the next 2 to 3 years - by then, CS6 likely won't run on the latest Macs. That, and they'll realized the GIMP, DrawIt and Apple Pages/Quark XPress aren't viable alternatives for a pro user.
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